The 14th regular session of the Parties to the Convention was held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, from 17 to 29 November 2018.  The 2018 UN Conference on Biodiversity concluded on 29 November 2018 with a broad international agreement on reversing the global destruction of nature and the loss of biodiversity, which threaten all forms of life on Earth. The parties have adopted voluntary guidelines for the effective design and implementation of ecosystem approaches to adapting to climate change and reducing disaster risks.   Governments have also agreed to accelerate measures to achieve the Aichi biodiversity targets agreed in 2010 by 2020. Work to achieve these goals would take place at the global, regional, national and sub-national levels. Luc Gnacadja, Executive Secretary of UNCCD, said: “Efforts to combat desertification through the promotion of sustainable agricultural practices have potential benefits for adaptation to climate change, the preservation of biodiversity and sustainable use through the protection and restoration of production potential in arid areas.” Although the Convention explicitly states that all forms of life are covered by its provisions, a review of national biodiversity reports and strategies and action plans presented by participating countries shows that this is not the case in practice. The fifth European Union report, for example, often concerns animals (especially fish) and plants, but does not mention any bacteria, fungi or protists.  The International Society for Fungal Conservation evaluated more than 100 of these cbd documents using criteria for their mushroom cover to place each of six categories. No document was deemed good or appropriate, less than 10% is considered almost reasonable or bad and the rest was deemed defective, severely defective or totally defective.
 The Convention has recognized for the first time in international law that the preservation of biodiversity is “a common concern of humanity” and is an integral part of the development process. The agreement applies to all ecosystems, species and genetic resources. It links traditional conservation efforts to the economic goal of sustainable exploitation of biological resources. It establishes the principles of a fair and equitable distribution of aspects arising from the use of genetic resources, particularly those for commercial exploitation.  In addition, it covers the rapidly growing biotechnology sector through the Cartagena Biosecurity Protocol, which addresses issues of technology development and transfer, benefit sharing and biosecurity. It is important that the convention be legally binding; Countries that join the contracting parties are required to implement their provisions. The 15th meeting of the parties will be held in Kunming, China, in the second quarter of 2021.  The aim is for the meeting to “adopt a global framework for biodiversity after 2020 as a springboard for the 2050 vision of Living in Harmony with Nature.”  Following the meeting, the meeting adopted the Pyeongchang Road Map, which discusses ways to achieve biodiversity through technological cooperation, financing and capacity building in developing countries.  Twenty years later, partners from around the world are back in Rio de Janeiro to take stock of how these agreements have enabled the world to meet the challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss and the fight against desertification and land degradation. The CBD is currently following the 2011-2020 Biodiversity Strategic Plan and its aichi biodiversity targets, which are used as a means of maintaining synergies at the national level. Its mission is to take “effective and urgent action to end biodiversity loss to ensure ecosystem resilience by 2020 and to continue to provide essential services, thereby ensuring the diversity of global life and contributing to human well-being and the eradication of poverty.”  The conference gave a mid-term assessment